- لیست اقدام پژوهی های مدیر و معاون مدرسه
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های مشترک برای همه دبیران و آموزگاران و هنر آموزان
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های مشترک مربوط به مشکلات آموزشی تربیتی رفتاری دانش آموزان
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های آموزگاران اول ابتدایی
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های آموزگاران دوم ابتدایی
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های آموزگاران سوم ابتدایی
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های آموزگاران چهارم ابتدایی
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های آموزگاران پنجم ابتدایی
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های آموزگاران ششم ابتدایی
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های معاونان اجرایی مدارس
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های مشاور مدارس
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های معاون و مربی پرورشی
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های آموزگار چندپایه
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های دبیر و معلم و مربی ورزش
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های مخصوص درس هدیه ها و پیام های آسمانی و درس دینی
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های مخصوص درس مطالعات و علوم اجتماعی و دبیر علوم اجتماعی
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های مخصوص درس فیزیک و دبیر فیزیک
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های مخصوص درس ریاضی و هندسه و دبیر ریاضی و هندسه
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های مخصوص درس ادبیات فارسی و دبیر ادبیات فارسی و زبان فارسی
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های مخصوص درس هنر - دبیر هنر - آموزگار هنر
- لیست اقدام پژوهی دبیر و درس تاریخ
- لیست اقدام پژوهی درس جغرافیا و دبیر جغرافیا
- لیست اقدام پژوهی دبیر و آموزگار علوم تجربی و درس علوم تجربی
- لیست اقدام پژوهی ها مخصوص دبیر کار و فناوری و حرفه و فن
- لیست اقدام پژوهی مخصوص دبیر زبان و درس زبان انگلیسی
- لیست اقدام پژوهی مربی بهداشت مدارس
- لیست اقدام پژوهی آموزگار و دبیر استثنائی
- لیست اقدام پژوهی دبیر شیمی
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های دبیر آمادگی دفاعی
- لیست اقدام پژوهی هنر آموز کامپیوترو گرافیک
- لیست اقدام پژوهی معلم زیست و بهداشت
- لیست اقدام پژوهی دبیر زیست شناسی
- لیست اقدام پژوهی دبیر فلسفه
- لیست اقدام پژوهی مسئول مجتمع ورزشی
- لیست اقدام پژوهی سرپرست کارگاه
- لیست اقدام پژوهی خدمتگزار و مستخدم مدرسه
- لیست اقدام پژوهی آموزشیار نهضت
- لیست اقدام پژوهی هنر آموز حسابداری
- لیست اقدام پژوهی هنر آموز نقشه کشی
- لیست اقدام پژوهی های مشترک برای همه دبیران و آموزگاران و هنر آموزان
Step 1—Selecting a Focus
The action research process begins with serious reflection directed toward identifying a topic or topics worthy of a busy teacher's time. Considering the incredible demands on today's classroom teachers, no activity is worth doing unless it promises to make the central part of a teacher's work more successful and satisfying. Thus, selecting a focus, the first step in the process, is vitally important. Selecting a focus begins with the teacher researcher or the team of action researchers asking:
What element(s) of our practice or what aspect of student learning do we wish to investigate?
Step 2—Clarifying Theories
The second step involves identifying the values, beliefs, and theoretical perspectives the researchers hold relating to their focus. For example, if teachers are concerned about increasing responsible classroom behavior, it will be helpful for them to begin by clarifying which approach—using punishments and rewards, allowing students to experience the natural consequences of their behaviors, or some other strategy—they feel will work best in helping students acquire responsible classroom behavior habits.
Step 3—Identifying Research Questions
Once a focus area has been selected and the researcher's perspectives and beliefs about that focus have been clarified, the next step is to generate a set of personally meaningful research questions to guide the inquiry.
Step 4—Collecting Data
Professional educators always want their instructional decisions to be based on the best possible data. Action researchers can accomplish this by making sure that the data used to justify their actions are valid (meaning the information represents what the researchers say it does) and reliable (meaning the researchers are confident about the accuracy of their data). Lastly, before data are used to make teaching decisions, teachers must be confident that the lessons drawn from the data align with any unique characteristics of their classroom or school.
To ensure reasonable validity and reliability, action researchers should avoid relying on any single source of data. Most teacher researchers use a process called triangulation to enhance the validity and reliability of their findings. Basically, triangulation means using multiple independent sources of data to answer one's questions. Triangulation is like studying an object located inside a box by viewing it through various windows cut into the sides of the box. Observing a phenomenon through multiple “windows” can help a single researcher compare and contrast what is being seen through a variety of lenses.
When planning instruction, teachers want the techniques they choose to be appropriate for the unique qualities of their students. All teachers have had the experience of implementing a “research-proven” strategy only to have it fail with their students. The desire of teachers to use approaches that “fit” their particular students is not dissimilar to a doctor's concern that the specific medicine being prescribed be the correct one for the individual patient. The ability of the action research process to satisfy an educator's need for “fit” may be its most powerful attribute. Because the data being collected come from the very students and teachers who are engaged with the treatment, the relevance of the findings is assured.
For the harried and overworked teacher, “data collection” can appear to be the most intimidating aspect of the entire seven-step action research process. The question I am repeatedly asked, “Where will I find the time and expertise to develop valid and reliable instruments for data collection?”, gives voice to a realistic fear regarding time management. Fortunately, classrooms and schools are, by their nature, data-rich environments. Each day a child is in class, he or she is producing or not producing work, is interacting productively with classmates or experiencing difficulties in social situations, and is completing assignments proficiently or poorly. Teachers not only see these events transpiring before their eyes, they generally record these events in their grade books. The key to managing triangulated data collection is, first, to be effective and efficient in collecting the material that is already swirling around the classroom, and, second, to identify other sources of data that might be effectively surfaced with tests, classroom discussions, or questionnaires.
Step 5—Analyzing Data
Although data analysis often brings to mind the use of complex statistical calculations, this is rarely the case for the action researcher. A number of relatively user-friendly procedures can help a practitioner identify the trends and patterns in action research data. During this portion of the seven-step process, teacher researchers will methodically sort, sift, rank, and examine their data to answer two generic questions:
- What is the story told by these data?
- Why did the story play itself out this way?
By answering these two questions, the teacher researcher can acquire a better understanding of the phenomenon under investigation and as a result can end up producing grounded theory regarding what might be done to improve the situation.
Step 6—Reporting Results
It is often said that teaching is a lonely endeavor. It is doubly sad that so many teachers are left alone in their classrooms to reinvent the wheel on a daily basis. The loneliness of teaching is unfortunate not only because of its inefficiency, but also because when dealing with complex problems the wisdom of several minds is inevitably better than one.
The sad history of teacher isolation may explain why the very act of reporting on their action research has proven so powerful for both the researchers and their colleagues. The reporting of action research most often occurs in informal settings that are far less intimidating than the venues where scholarly research has traditionally been shared. Faculty meetings, brown bag lunch seminars, and teacher conferences are among the most common venues for sharing action research with peers. However, each year more and more teacher researchers are writing up their work for publication or to help fulfill requirements in graduate programs. Regardless of which venue or technique educators select for reporting on research, the simple knowledge that they are making a contribution to a collective knowledge base regarding teaching and learning frequently proves to be among the most rewarding aspects of this work.
Step 7—Taking Informed Action
Taking informed action, or “action planning,” the last step in the action research process, is very familiar to most teachers. When teachers write lesson plans or develop academic programs, they are engaged in the action planning process. What makes action planning particularly satisfying for the teacher researcher is that with each piece of data uncovered (about teaching or student learning) the educator will feel greater confidence in the wisdom of the next steps. Although all teaching can be classified as trial and error, action researchers find that the research process liberates them from continuously repeating their past mistakes. More important, with each refinement of practice, action researchers gain valid and reliable data on their developing virtuosity.
منبع : سايت علمی و پژوهشي آسمان--صفحه اینستاگرام ما را دنبال کنید
اين مطلب در تاريخ: چهارشنبه 13 فروردین 1399 ساعت: 10:00 منتشر شده است
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